Uttar Pradesh has an important place in the history of Hinduism, as well as the history of ancient India. Control over the region was vital to the power and stability of all of India's empires and kingdoms.
U.P. became the heart land of the Moghul empire who called the place 'Hindustan' which became the second name of U.P. (after Aryavarta/ Madhyadesh). Even today UP-ites call themselves 'Hindustani' rather than Uttar Pradeshi. Hindustani is also used as a synonym for India ------ which is a pointer that U.P. is the essence of India.
The ancient Hindu kingdom of Kosala in Ayodhya, where Lord Rama of the Ramayana reigned, was located here and Lord Krishna, revered as the eighth Avatara of Vishnu, was born in the city of Mathura. The Chaukhandi Stupa marks the spot where Lord Buddha met his first disciples. The Dhamek Stupa in Sarnath commemorates Buddha's first sermon.
The Mahabharat war and the aftermath took part in the area between Uttar Pradesh and Delhi. It was ruled under King Yudhishtira after the Mahabharat.
After that, this area was sometimes divided between petty kingdoms or formed important parts of larger empires from the east or the west, including the Mauryan, Gupta and Kushan empires.
The climate of Uttar Pradesh is generally tropical monsoon, but variations in climate is always there due to difference in altitudes.
Geography of Uttar Pradesh is divided into three distinct regions. The Himalayan region in the north is highly rugged and varied terrain; now in the state of Uttaranchal. Varying topography; elevation ranges from 300 to 5000m; slope ranges from 150 to 600 m/km, the Gangetic Plain in the centre is highly fertile alluvial soils; flat topography broken by numerous ponds, lakes and rivers; slope 2 m/km, and the Vindhya Hills and plateau in the south is hard rock Strata; varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateau; limited water availability.